Point 3: ensuring the safety of the external environment
(1) Reasonable pressure gradient, the polluted air in the ward will not overflow, and the polluted air in the outdoor will not intrude, and static isolation is achieved.
(2) Exhaust air system filtration is very important to the safety of the ward environment. High-efficiency filters are installed in the exhaust air outlets of the ward, and the leak detection of the filters can be implemented to block all pollutants indoors to ensure that the outdoor environment and even the ventilation pipes are not polluted.
(3) The exhaust air outlet is set at more than 3 meters in the highest position of the building to ensure that the exhaust air can be fully diluted into the ambient air flow, which will minimize the impact.
Point 4: Ensure constant negative pressure and pressure gradient
(1) Negative pressure is the basis of the negative pressure ward. While ensuring that the supply air volume meets the purification requirements, set a certain margin for the system air flow volume, and that the blower and exhaust air flow are equipped with variable frequency adjustment to adjust the air volume in real time according to actual needs. To ensure that indoor negative pressure can still be guaranteed under the influence of multiple factors.
(2) Adopt advanced construction technology for the envelope structure to ensure the tightness of the envelope structure and low air leakage rate.
(3) A constant air volume device is arranged on the air supply and exhaust ducts of each ward to ensure that the air supply and exhaust volume of the room are constant, thereby ensuring the constant pressure of the room.
Point 5: Ensure stable and reliable system operation
(1) The key to the use of a negative pressure ward is the maintenance of negative pressure. Uncontrolled negative pressure will cause severe cross infection. Therefore, a backup unit should be set for each exhaust fan unit, and the standby unit is automatically turned on after the unit fails to ensure that the negative pressure is maintained, and it can also be used as a backup during equipment maintenance.
(2) The equipment uses power with dual power settings to ensure reliable power.
Basic requirements and key and difficult solutions for electrical professional design
(I) Basic requirements for professional design of strong electricity
- Negative pressure ward and ICU should be equipped with dual power supplies
The dual power configuration meets the requirements of the negative pressure ward specification to ensure that there is a backup power source for the medical power supply of the negative pressure ward if there is a problem with the one power supply.
- The negative pressure ward and the ICU should be equipped with an emergency power supply (UPS) to ensure the safe and reliable power supply of highly transmissive negative pressure wards and the ICU such as respiratory infectious diseases (such as SARS).
- Each bed in the ICU ward should be provided with a separate power supply interface and separated from the electricity for auxiliary rooms. At the same time, a medical IT system should be configured to completely isolate the electrical between the primary side and the secondary side, and also isolate the circuit, isolate dangerous voltages, reduce the capacitance current to ground, which is small enough to cause harm to humans and ensure the safety of patients’ electricity. .
- In places such as clean corridors, dirty toilets, waiting rooms, consultation rooms, treatment rooms, and wards that require sterilization and disinfection, ultraviolet germicidal lamps are required for sterilization. Different switches should be used for germicidal lamps and other lighting fixtures. Easy to identify and operate.
- Protective grounding and equipotential grounding: The components of the negative pressure ward and ICU electrical devices are in contact with the patient, and the patient is in danger of electric shock. “Auxiliary equipotential bonding” must be implemented, that is, all metal components and pipes in the site are interconnected with PE wires. The purpose of equipotential bonding is to make all metal components at the same potential as the PE wire to reduce the contact voltage and improve the level of safe electricity consumption.
(2) Basic requirements for weak current intelligence
- Configure emergency broadcasting and public broadcasting system
The negative pressure ward and ICU are equipped with ceiling speakers in the corridor and ward, and the broadcasting host is placed at the nurse station. Receive a fire signal to play an evacuation broadcast during a fire, and can usually perform functions such as playing music and broadcasting to find people.
- Monitoring system
Negative pressure ward and ICU ward entrance and exit are equipped with surveillance cameras, the host is set up and the nurse station is convenient for nurses to use. Use video surveillance to prevent cross-infection, and identify and record people who go in and out for later inquiry.
3.Access control system
The entrance of the negative pressure ward and ICU ward is equipped with an access control device. The door can be opened by swiping cards, passwords, fingerprint recognition, and face recognition lights to prevent unauthorized people from entering.
- Integrated wiring system
Configure the telephone network and cable TV points. The telephone network points should meet the medical staff’s requirements for communication and collection of patient information. The television points should meet the medical staff’s and patient’s education requirements.
- Medical Intercom System
The medical intercom system of negative pressure ward and ICU ward, the call station is set at the nurse station, the call extension is set at the ward and bed, and the two-way voice intercom function should be implemented; meanwhile, the call equipment in front of the bed should be easy to clean and disinfect.
- Ward video surveillance and visiting system
Negative pressure ward and ICU ward are equipped with patient visiting system, nurse station is equipped with visiting main unit, visiting room is equipped with visiting extension unit, ward and bed are equipped with visiting extension unit; visiting system should adopt two-way voice and video communication; terminal on the patient side of visiting system Equipment should be easy to handle and disinfect.
(III) Major and Difficulties in Electrical Design and Solutions
Point 1: Security guarantee for power supply and distribution
This project uses dry-type transformers without filters. Therefore, the negative voltage ward and the ICU’s total power distribution box are equipped with filters, which can dynamically compensate for reactive power and compensate for three-phase unbalanced current. Loss, improve the energy efficiency of power supply equipment, and provide a strong safety guarantee for the normal operation of medical electrical equipment.
Point 2: Lighting support for emergency evacuation
The evacuation lighting and exit instructions for negative pressure wards and ICU wards should be powered by batteries, and the continuous power supply time should not be less than 30min. At the same time, the illuminance of emergency lighting in ICU Class 2 medical electrical places is not less than 50% of the illuminance under normal conditions.
Point 3: Double door interlocking airflow safety guarantee in isolation area
Medical personnel enter the buffer room of the negative pressure ward using a double door interlocking device to prevent the pressure gradient caused by the simultaneous opening of the double doors of the buffer room in the negative pressure area, resulting in cross-flow of air and cross infection.
Point 4: Design and Construction
- It is necessary to provide the total power of the negative pressure ward and the ICU and the configuration and installation position requirements of the main power distribution box in the design stage before construction in order to reserve the power distribution box.
- Docking with weak power units and providing reserved numbers of telephone network points
so that weak power units reserve telephone and network switch ports.
- Provide equipotential grounding reserve drawings, and reserve the equipotential grounding flat iron before ground leveling.
Basic requirements and key and difficult solutions for professional design of water supply and drainage
(I) Basic design requirements:
- In order to meet the needs of rapid construction, the domestic water supply and drainage pipes of the negative pressure ward used plastic pipes in compliance with the provisions of the “Sanitary Standard for Drinking Water” GB5749.
- All negative pressure isolation wards, negative pressure ICU wash basins, etc. are equipped with hot water, which is convenient for medical staff.
- Negative pressure ICU endoscope cleaning is equipped with pure water system.
- All taps are non-contact or non-manual switches.
(Two) design difficulties and solutions:
Point 1: Guaranteed water quality of negative pressure ward
- The water supply system is equipped with a sterilizer to ensure that the water quality meets the GB5749 “Sanitary Standard for Drinking Water” standards.
- The backwater preventer is equipped in the proper area to prevent pollution.
Point 2: how to deal with negative pressure ward and negative pressure ICU drainage
- The high-efficiency filter should be installed on the drainage vent pipe of the negative-pressure ward, and the ventilation riser should be kept away from the air inlet and the area where people move, to ensure the safety of the outdoor environment.
- Negative pressure ward drainage pipe is set separately and connected to the hospital disinfection tank and sewage treatment system for safe discharge.
- In order to ensure that the indoor environment of the negative-pressure ward is not polluted, there is no cleaning port, maintenance port or floor drain in the department. It is necessary to set a water seal below the floor drain and a water seal 50-70mm.
Basic requirements and key and difficult solutions for professional design of medical gas
(I) Basic design requirements
- The negative pressure ward and the negative pressure ICU medical gas delivery pipe are made of copper. Copper has good anti-corrosion ability, especially strong antibacterial ability, easy construction and easy welding quality assurance.
- All beds in negative pressure isolation ward are equipped with oxygen terminal and negative pressure terminal; compressed air terminal is recommended for backup;
(II) Design key difficulties and solutions:
Key point one: medical gas safety guarantee
- Negative pressure suction station room is not suitable for common ward, it is set up independently, and the station room is equipped with filters to sterilize.
- Check valve is installed on the medical gas pipeline of the negative pressure ward to prevent pollution.
Design considerations for fast installation and fast delivery
- Professional decoration: The room is designed to a uniform standard size, and the wall panel and the top surface are made into a fixed size module. The doors and windows are designed according to standardized sizes. The floor uses a product system that is stocked by the manufacturer to achieve rapid production and speed. Way of installation.
- HVAC: new and exhaust unit selection and automatic control system solutions communicate technical solutions with equipment suppliers during design, please manufacturers to provide simultaneous production of supporting products to achieve the fastest supply; the air duct system uses as many as possible A standard air duct model realizes mechanized processing and rapid on-site installation; the exhaust branch pipe is connected by finished PVC round pipes, saving labor.
3.Electrical: All the top wires go through the bridge, and the wall wires go through the PVC pipe to achieve a fast installation method.
The negative pressure ward and ICU ward of Wuhan Huoshenshan Hospital have worked through the Huakang technical team for 60 consecutive hours to complete the work from scheme design to construction drawing design. Through the 150-hour continuous operation of procurement, engineering construction and commissioning team, material procurement , Construction and system commissioning, passed the detection of indoor environmental indicators by the Hubei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, smoothly transferred to the military for use. The delivery of this project will make an important contribution to the fight against the epidemic in Wuhan and save the lives of patients with severe new coronary pneumonia.